Abolition essay

The Christian belief in the fundamental unity of the human race clashed with fashionable theories of polygenesis and African inferiority, promoted by infidel philosophers. As Davis explains, ‘early antislavery writers like James Ramsay and Granville Sharp repeatedly identified the theory of racial inferiority with Hume, Voltaire, and materialistic philosophy in general; they explicitly presented their attacks on slavery as a vindication of Christianity, moral accountability, and the unity of mankind’.[16] Hannah More deplored the new philosophical racism:

The final chapter describes the ultimate consequences of this debunking: a distant future in which the values and morals of the majority are controlled by a small group who rule by a "perfect" understanding of psychology, and who in turn, being able to "see through" any system of morality that might induce them to act in a certain way, are ruled only by their own unreflected whims. In surrendering rational reflection on their own motivations, the controllers will no longer be recognizably human, the controlled will be robot-like, and the Abolition of Man will have been completed.

=DPSP Art. 48 fullfilled (modern and scientific agriculture and animal husbandry) #2: Emancipation

  • After abolition of Zamindari, the agricultural laborers no longer forced to give free labors=Begari, Bonded labour declined. Art. 23 fullfilled.
  • Bargaining power of agri. laborers increased=>higher wages=>declined poverty.
#3: Changed rural power structure
  • Public land such as village ponds, grazing grounds, village streets etc. which was used by the Zamindar’s as personal property, have been declared as community property. =DPSP Art. 39 full filled (material resources of community).
  • This disarmed the Zamindars of economic exploitation and dominance over others. Thus, Transferred power from Zamindars to peasants.
#4: Towards an Egalitarian Society
  • Abolition of intermediaries=> asset distribution=> egalitarian society.
  • The Planning Commission estimates that after Abolition of Zamindari, at least twenty million tenants were brought into direct relationship with the governments.
  • empowerment of those who have out of the development process.
  • = DPSP fullfilled . (securing a social order, minimize inequality of income, status, facilities and opportunities.)
#5: Rise of middleclass
  • Since the intermediaries were removed=>farmers don’t have to pay heavy rent=>these farmers could generate profit=>could sent their kids to school and colleges.
  • So in a way, land reforms helped in expansion of Indian middleclass.
Mock Questions
  1. Zamindari abolition merely changed the hierarchy of land revenue administration, but did not bring any change in the method of farming nor in the nature of agricultural units. Comment
  2. Critically evaluate the signification of Zamindari abolition as a measure of land reforms.
  3. Analyse the impact of Zamindari abolition on rural power structure. Do you agree with the opinion that it didn’t really benefit the marginalized sections of rural society?
  4. Explain how Zamindari abolition helped fullfilling the directive principles of state policy.
  5. Land reforms could not have been initiated without enactment of the First Amendment. Comment.
  6. “Land reforms have been treated as an integral part of eradicating poverty, and increasing of agricultural production.” Comment.
  7. Explain the role of Land reforms in providing social justice and moving towards an egalitarian society.
  8. Land Reforms is a planned and institutional reorganisation of the relation between man and land. Comment.
  9. Land reform is not confined to just redistribution of property rights among the landless poor. Comment.
  10. Examine the change introduced into system of land tenure and the farming structure during first five year plan.
  11. Define Land reforms. Examine its role in removing the barriers for economic and social development in India.
In the next article, we’ll the second measure of land reform: “Land Ceilings”.

Abolition essay

abolition essay

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