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In quantum mechanics , one typically describes a physical system with a C*-algebra A with unit element; the self-adjoint elements of A (elements x with x* = x ) are thought of as the observables , the measurable quantities, of the system. A state of the system is defined as a positive functional on A (a C -linear map φ : A → C with φ( u*u ) ≥ 0 for all u ∈ A ) such that φ(1) = 1. The expected value of the observable x , if the system is in state φ, is then φ( x ).
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing publishes mathematically rigorous, original research papers reporting on algebraic methods and techniques relevant to all domains concerned with computers, intelligent systems and communications. Coverage includes vision, robotics, system design, fault tolerance and dependability of systems, VLSI technology, signal processing, signal theory, coding, error control techniques, cryptography, protocol specification, networks, software engineering, arithmetics, algorithms, complexity, computer algebra, programming languages, logic and functional programming, algebraic specification, term rewriting systems, theorem proving, graphics, modeling, knowledge engineering, expert systems, and artificial intelligence methodology.