Beautiful necessity seven essays

Aristotle doesn't go into much detail about how this happens, except to say that we get the virtues by working at them: in the give-and-take with other people, some become just, others unjust; by acting in the face of frightening things and being habituated to be fearful or confident, some become brave and others cowardly; and some become moderate and gentle, others spoiled and bad-tempered, by turning around from one thing and toward another in the midst of desires and passions. (1103 b, 1422) He sums this up by saying that when we are at-work in a certain way, an active state results. This innocent sentence seems to me to be one of the lynch-pins that hold together the  Ethics , the spot that marks the transition from the language of habit to the language appropriate to character. If you read the sentence in Greek, and have some experience of Aristotle's other writings, you will see how loaded it is, since it says that a  hexis depends upon an  energeia . The latter word, that can be translated as being-at-work, cannot mean mere behavior, however repetitive and constant it may be. It is this idea of being-at-work, which is central to all of Aristotle's thinking, that makes intelligible the transition out of childhood and into the moral stature that comes with character and virtue. (See  Aristotle on Motion and its Place in Nature for as discussion  energeia .)


1755 April Fort Cumberland at Wills Creek Gen. Braddock and his soldiers start for Wills Creek, the Ohio Company's store house that will become Fort Cumberland.  After the loss of Fort Necessity the year before, Wills Creek is the farthest west English outpost.  Fort Cumberland is located on the north side of the Potomac River at the confluence of Wills Creek and the Potomac River [present-day Cumberland, located in mountainous Allegany County, Maryland].
Fort Cumberland at Wills Creek (1)
Fort Cumberland at Wills Creek (2)

Beautiful necessity seven essays

beautiful necessity seven essays

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