Many of Locke's views were sharply criticized by rationalists and empiricists alike. In 1704 the rationalist Gottfried Leibniz wrote a response to Locke's work in the form of a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal, the Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain ("New Essays on Human Understanding"). Leibniz was critical of a number of Locke's views in the Essay , including his rejection of innate ideas, his skepticism about species classification, and the possibility that matter might think, among other things. Leibniz thought that Locke's commitment to ideas of reflection in the Essay ultimately made him incapable of escaping the nativist position or being consistent in his empiricist doctrines of the mind's passivity. The empiricist George Berkeley was equally critical of Locke's views in the Essay . Berkeley's most notable criticisms of Locke were first published in A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge . Berkeley held that Locke's conception of abstract ideas was incoherent and led to severe contradictions. He also argued that Locke's conception of material substance was unintelligible, a view which he also later advanced in the Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous . At the same time, Locke's work provided crucial groundwork for future empiricists such as David Hume . John Wynne published An Abridgment of Mr. Locke's Essay concerning the Human Understanding , with Locke's approval, in 1696. Louisa Capper wrote An Abridgment of Locke's Essay concerning the Human Understanding , published in 1811.
The development of the mechanics of space flight brought to life a whole series of fascinating and novel problems. The purpose of this book is to present some interesting and often unexpected achievements that have allowed some classical problems to be reconsidered in a new light. In order to reveal the beauty of the research process leading to the results, the emphasis is put on the analysis that can be carried out on the level of graphs and drawings, and sometimes numbers. Whenever possible, the investigation relies on maximally intuitive, elegant geometric tools. The book can be read profitably by anyone with the mathematical background typically offered in the first few years of undergraduate studies in mathematics, physics and engineering, including students, teachers, scientists and engineers. From the review of the first edition in Priroda by . Arnold and . Zeldovich: "...For a solid scientific monograph, . Beletsky’s book is out of the ordinary in many respects. Without exaggeration we can say that it marks the affirmation of a new style in the scientific literature. The author explains in a frank and detailed manner the reasons behind each calculation, its difficulties, and the psychological side of research...The general impression that the "Essays" make is not that of a boring lesson, but rather a discussion with a brilliant, knowledgeable and wise interlocutor."