There is, however, an asterisk on that “No!” That is, the peer-review process in pay-to-publish, open-access journals cannot achieve quality assurance without extremely stringent safeguards (which will come as no surprise to anyone familiar with the debate). There’s nothing necessarily or intrinsically wrong with either open-access or pay-to-publish journals, and they may ultimately prove valuable. However, in the short term, pay-to-publish may be a significant problem because of the inherent tendencies toward conflicts of interest (profits trump academic quality, that is, the profit motive is dangerous because ethics are expensive).
Technology offers innovative tools that are shaping educational experiences for students, often in positive and dynamic ways. The research by Mueller and Oppenheimer serves as a reminder, however, that even when technology allows us to do more in less time, it does not always foster learning. Learning involves more than the receipt and the regurgitation of information. If we want students to synthesize material, draw inferences, see new connections, evaluate evidence, and apply concepts in novel situations, we need to encourage the deep, effortful cognitive processes that underlie these abilities. When it comes to taking notes, students need fewer gigs, more brain power.
One practice considers conceptual knowledge as meta-knowledge that grows out of procedural proficiency. It is referred to as the practice of “simultaneous action” (., Hiebert & Carpenter, 1992; Morris, 1999; Skemp, 1976). Instruction that follows this practice typically starts with a brief introduction of new concepts and focuses on the modeling of procedures and practice. For example, a teacher will explain why students cannot simply add the numerators of fractions with different denominators. To add such fractions they must first convert some or all of the fractions to equivalent fractions that share a common denominator. Once students do that successfully, they can add the numerators. This teacher assumes that this kind of “knowledge” about addition with fractions makes it easier for her students to learn the procedure.